Biotechnology is a well-known term that is translated from English biotechnology. The National Science and Technology Council defines biotechnology as "biotechnology contains a range of technologies that can use organisms or cells to produce the products we need, including genetic recombination, cell fusion, and some biological manufacturing processes."
In fact, humans have a long history of using organisms or cells to produce the products we need, such as cultivating 10,000 years ago, grazing to provide a stable source of food, brewing and making bread using fermentation technology 6,000 years ago. The use of mold to treat wounds two thousand years ago, the use of smallpox vaccine in 1797, and the antibiotic penicillin in 1928.
Since humans have been using biotechnology for so long, why has biotechnology suddenly attracted widespread attention since 1990? This is because since the 1950s, the scientific community has gained a deeper understanding of the cells that make up the smallest unit of organisms and the genes that control cytogenetic characteristics, and the development of gene recombination and cell fusion technologies in the 1970s. Since these two technologies can more effectively enable cells or organisms to produce the substances we need and contribute to industrial or agricultural production, we have created an emerging biotechnology industry since the 1980s!
Bill Gates said in 1996 that "biotechnology will change the world like computer software." The modern biotechnology industry has been developed since 1980, and its applications range from pharmaceuticals, agriculture, environmental protection, food processing, and specialty chemicals. In biomedical pharmacy, 155 biotech drugs or vaccines have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of diabetes, heart disease, cancer, AIDS and other diseases. In agriculture, genetically recombinant plants such as papaya, tomato, corn, soybeans, etc. have been marketed. These genetically modified plants are characterized by strong resistance to pests and diseases and can reduce the use of chemical pesticides.